(Thanks to Edna for this translation of the German Text!)


by Florian Mayr

"Gundremmingen, Heimatbuch einer schwäbischen Gemeinde an der Donau",

(Native village book of a Swabian Municipality)

Publishing house: Anton H. Konrad, Weißenhorn, 200 pages including chronicle of houses. 

Draft version, last updated 4 July 02    => to German Version


Gundremmingen became widely known at the beginning of the 19th century due to

the Catholic minister Ignaz Lindl. He was born on 3 October 1774 a son of

the wealthy restaurant-operating couple Urban and Monika Lindl1, the later

born at Friedl, in Baindlkirch near Friedberg. From this marriage nine

children followed. Ignaz was the favorite of his mother, she died on 20

April 1782. His father's second marriage was to Elizabeth Naehel on 8 April

1783. Thus the numerous children received a new mother. The name Lindl

occurs in Baindlkirch for the first time on 5 October 17372. On this day

George Lindl married Maria Pentenriederin who was born in Bandlkirch on 17

June 1711, she had received a very large house including the land from her

parents. It is not well known from where George Lindl came - probably from

the area of Baindlkirch. The restaurant and 150 tagwerk (field measure) of

farm land was sold by the family Lindl in the year 1916 to a person named

Einstein. Probably due to economic reasons. Lindl then acquired a

restaurant in Friedberg . The restaurant name "Lindlwirt" was preserved in


As a boy, Ignaz was intelligent and able to attend school in Baindlkirch like his

brothers and sisters. We do not know whether he ever attended high school.

Lindl studied at St. Salvator Exjesuitenkolleg at Augsburg and in Dilligen.

The 18 May 1799 he became a priest. He then transferred to a free post as a

Kaplan (Clergyman) in his own residence: he held the post of a Vicar from

6 June 1800 until 4 May 1801, afterwards he was appointed Minister in

Baindlkirch. In the Spring 1818 Lindl was relieved from his duties in the parish

at Baindlkirch. It appears very doubtful, whether this was a good idea, to take

this position from an above average and talented priest who had spent almost

19 years of his childhood and youth there.

Lindl's followers (Linlianer)3 judged him as lively, strong willed, bustling and eager.

His physical build is told to be of medium size with a clear face; that

expresses a seriousness and a godly peace. In handling his fellow men he was

friendly and condescending, with a strong voice. Until approximately 1812

Lindl led his parish on the basis of using modern criteria of which his

superiors would not complain. He created different Brotherhoods, from whose

members he required an active role (love). His welfare service particularly

applied to all needy ones, the orphans, widows, old persons and the

handicapped. One heard of him again and again: "the left one is not to know

what the right one gives". Lindl was very socially adjusted.

In the year 1812 Martin Voelk4, born on 3 November in Eismannsberg near

Friedberg, came as chaplain into Lindl's parish. Voelk was very scholarly

and was considered one of the strongest personalities of the "arousing

movement". His sister Elizabeth bacame a helper in his household, and later

became Lindl's wife. Voelk persuaded Lindl with his ideas of the new

Arousing Movement. The latter also became acquainted with the Catholic

priests Johann Gossner, Martin Boos and other clergymen, which are to be

ranked among the relevant starters of the aroused ones. They were also very

close to important theologians such as Johann Michael Sailer, who from

1829-1832 was a bishop, from 1836-1842 an archbishop of Freiburg in

Breisgau, Christoph Schmidt and Ignaz Demeter.

The latter originated from the Demeter family who were owners of the property

Hygstetten in the Parish Gundremmingen from 1653 to 1873. The target of this

Christian movement was the revival of the religious life. Lindl propagated this

"arousing movement" with all his strength, he wrote popular books and he

particularly aimed to win the women and girls for the new movement.

He declares that the Holy Bible5 is a guide to the faith and the customs, without an

acknowledgement by the traditions and the church. Lindl states that everyone,

who does research work in the Holy Bible, receives assistance by the Holy Spirit

in order to be able to interpret it. With the services he put main interest on the lecture,

and he was fully conscious himself to the effect of his words.

In the booklet6, "The Core of the Christianity", written by him he says among other things:

"ten years long I have holy requirements under lightnings and thunders of God

announced from the pulpit however without fear - without conversion – without

transformation of the listeners". After each lecture, after each Beichte (confession) and

Communion my Parish remained, the young and old alike. Due to this I became attentive,

and I research the reason. In the year 1812, it was the first time I was enlightened due to

the grace of the Lord concerning Evangelism, which I did not yet know to differentiate

from the Law.

Ich sah allmählich ein, daß ich die Pferde am Wagen der Göttlichen Wahrheit verkehrt angespannt hatte:
darum ging es immer rückwärts statt vorwärts. Neu belebt durch diese Erkenntnis, fing ich an, das Evangelium -
oder Christus den lebendig machenden Geist - den Toten-Erwecker und Seligmacher dem Volke zu verkündigen,
und gleich mit dem Beginn dieser Predigt wirkte Gottes Geist in den Herzen der Zuhörer." Dies verursachte
Aufsehen, Zulauf und die verschiedenen Gespräche der Menschen - gute und böse - nach Art ihrer Beschaffenheit.

Die Predigten, die Lindl berühmt machten, fanden nicht immer die Zustimmung der oberen Kirchenbehörde.
Daher wurde ihm zunächst die Verteilung religiöser Schriften verboten und sein ihm ergebener Kaplan Völk
wurde 1815 nach Uffing versetzt 7. Zu dieser Zeit weilte der Münchener Mediziner Dr. Nepomuk von Ringseis
etwa eine Woche bei Pfarrer Lindl in Baindlkirch. Von Ringseis schrieb einen begeisterten Bericht über den
Prediger Lindl. Das Schriftsück wurde auch in Norddeutschland bekannt.

Über Ringseis ging die Verbindung zu Friedrich Karl von Savigny, zu dessen Schwager Clemens Brentano zu
den Teilhabern der Freiheitskriege Adolf von Thadden und Karl von Lancicolle. Sie alle haben Lindl aufgesucht
und waren von ihm stark beeindruckt. Auf einer Reise nach dem Süden machte auch der spätere preussische
Kultsminister Moritz Bethmann von Hollweg bei Lindl eine kurze Rast. Diese Besuche aus Norddeutschland
blieben nicht ohne Einfluss auf das evangelische Christentum.

A minister from the neighborhood reports Lindl in 1817, because by his

activity he is endangering the church and domestic peace. The Bavarian

Ministry along with the Ordinariat Augsburg required the removal of Lindl

from his Parish in Baindlkirch, and then he had to answer for himself at the

Generalvikariat Augsburg regarding his Vicarage in the Catholic Church.

During this procedure Lindl lived with the cathedral minister Marguard

Pichler, which had to supervise him. Pichler was in tune with Lindl, and

with his agreement Lindl, who had visited in former times, secretly met

with he Allgaeuer arousing movement cared for him in Augsburg. He became

acquainted with the Baron von Berckheim, son-in-law of the Baltic Baroness

von Kruedener. He had good relations with the Russian Emperor Alexander 1

and is able to stir his interest in the Allgaeuer arousing movement.

Berckheim was the first to indicate Lindl employment in Russia.

With "reskript" (decree)9 from 20 April 1818, which was signed by King Max

Joseph personally, it was arranged that

a) Lindl could not return to the Parish Baindlkirch,

b) Lindl is to be moved to a Parish far away from Baindlkirch in the upper

Danube at the seat of a regional court or in the proximity of such.

c) Lindl is to be placed under exact supervision of the religious and lay authorities.

The decision to lose his Parish, which was the place of his birth, his first

effectiveness as chaplain and priest, that place, for which he made so many

sacrifices, this might have caused depressive impressions on soft-minded

Lindl. With Lindl his main concerns were predominately religious. One finds

it strange therefore, that the regulations proceeded not with the church

authority, but from the King or with the Ministry. This happened because of

the national omnipotence at that time and the national church regiment. On

27 May 1818 Lindl got the royal transport writing, which ordered him to the

minister of Gundremmingen. Right away on 28 May 1818 his canonical

installation took place in the parish Gundremmingen. Lindl starts at his new

parish on 1 June 1818. After solemn chute into the church St. Martin he

spoke about other things to the many people present in the Parish:

"I can understand, if most of you receive me with doubts, since there are

such bad rumors about me. Also I begin this ministry with shyness, actually

my teachings are Evangelical, and I am ready to be a martyr for the gospel."

With the new minister the Augsburger cathedral minister Pichler came to

Grundremmingen also, and gave Lindl a praising speech and treated him as if

he were a martyr for his faith convictions. Pichler also had the opinion:

Lindl is a man, who has much and also knows how to give much.

The new minister was placed under the eye of the royal land judge Schill in

Dillingen and his religious "watchdog" became treasurer Franz Schuster from

Gloett and minister Gach in Rettenbach. Lindl was a free spirit who did not

adhere to the instructions of his superiors. With great eagerness he

fulfilled his office, and by his impressive lectures he quickly won the

hearts of his parishoners. The ones he taught not only in the church, but

also in private homes and circles. Thus it was in a short time over almost

all of Gundremmingen. The secret meetings in which the Bible was usually

read and laid out, were forbidden of the church and lay authorities. His

services were visited by many religiously interested people including

numerous protestants. They wanted to hear above all his detailed lectures.

In these sets Lindl wins rapidly faithful followers, to which belong the

businessman CH F. Werner11 from Giegen near Brenz. He was for many years

director/conductor of the "hours" in his homeland municipality. The wealthy

and outstanding businessman remains a faithful friend and co-worker of

Lindl, with him during the emigration and an indispensable aid with his whole

strength and with his fortune.

Lindl was often invited to be a preacher on Holydays . He preached at the

New Year celebration in the afternoon 1819 in Aislingen 2 1/2 hours, at

12 o'clock it was already overcrowded . Lindl spoke in Gundelfingen before

approximately 6000 listeners, among them were many Lutherans from the

neighboring Wuerttemburg area12. Then he spoke some days later at the three-

king celebration. With the Pietisten Lindl maintained a lively communication.

Anna Schlatter13, who was a friend of Lindl, writes about his successes in

Gundremmingen: "He causes wonders with conversions at the Danube, like they

once traveled to Kapernaum, in order to hear Jesus, this is the way they traveled

from all cities to Gundremmingen to hear Lindl". Summer of 1819 soon after his

arrival his following was so strong that Lindl could no longer preach in the church.

Many people hung on the walls near all the windows to hear his speech outside the

church. When Gossner14 had to move to Duesseldorf due to the pressure of the

Bavarian government in Munich, on 12 September 1819 he visaited his friend Lindl

in Grundremmingen. His report on Lindl: "In the previous evening the place

that is all houses, was already full of pilgrims. And through the whole

night even more people came. Early at 4 o'clock they went uphill to the

church, at 5 o'clock the church was full, no more people could get inside.

Quarter to Six o'clock, when I went uphill , there were more people outside

the church than inside the church, they stood on ladders at the windows of

the church and looked inside, and I needed a guard to come through the crowd".

In agreement Lindl's Gossner preached in the open air in front of an innumerable

quantity of people, an eye - witness estimated the crowd to be around 15000.

In Gundremmingen Lindl was on the climax of his parish work. He looked up and

found close links to the lay authorities, the new municipality chief Stephen

Proebstle thought well of him and became one of his most eager followers.

The land judge Schill from Dillingen, who should supervise Lindl, almost

became his protector. Not all Gundremmingen agreed with the activity of

their minister, because his actions and lectures were ever more in contrast

to the catholic faith. This did not remain hidden from his religious and lay

superiors, so again they started proceedings against Lindl, as he realized

this he went to Munich and discussed the details of his immediate removal to

Petersburg with the Russian envoy Baron von Berckheim. While in Petersburg

Lindl no doubt negotiated the emigration of the followers. The representative

of Russia had at that time among other things the function to enlist German

colonists. Lindl returned to his parish and made preparation for his departure.

With each opportunity Lindl asked his followers to emigrate to Russia, and many

declared to follow his call.

Concerning the planned emigration Lindl's, minister Walter from Burgau15 wrote

on 26 September 1819 to his friend Alois Fischer:

"God gives Lindl's end is near, otherwise the misery becomes greater. With

each day Lindl's followers grew more strong and numerous and his defenders

will express more boldly and more impudently". On the day mentioned above,

Lindl held a lecture again, and at the end he suddenly shouted:

"Gundremmingen, Gundremmingen! You and your neighbors accused me, you had not

enough place in the church, only short patience. You will soon have enough

room in it, not only when standing or sitting, you even will be able to lie

down in your church. But when the day of Last Judgement comes, it will be

obvious". These words were regarded by most listeners as the parting

lecture, while others thought it might be a prolouge. Among the people, his

followers, a dreadful crying developed. Also the present Lutherans cried

loudly, and Lindl poured tears likewise. The remaining people were without


Limdl's stay in Gundremmingen lasted only one and a half years, even though

he remained as long as possible at the minicipality loved by him, from which

he did not separate willingly. His last lectures, Christian teachings and

discussions were moving. When preparations for his departure were finished,

his municipality asked him not to drive away from the village, but to walk so

that they could all accompany him, and be with him to receive his benediction

once more. Lindl was treated by his followers as a holy, as a martyr and as

a victim of persecution because of his faith to Christ. His departure16 took place

on Monday 18 October 1819. At the yard of the parish church, from where he

often preached, the whole municipality met, in front of the others the children,

who should accompany the leaving person singing. As they walked from the church

yard the old and young sang and cried, individual outbreaks of the pain were to be

heard. When the school teacher gave a sign for the children to sing, they did not

bring out a sound, instead they cried loudly.

Lindl's traveling companions were: The young protestant Lorenz Steinmann from

St. Gallen, his housekeeper Elizabeth Voelk and the servant Veronika. First they

went across Lauingen to Giengen on the Brenz River. In both places many

Gundremmingen folks had appeared, among them also was Benefiziat Nerlinger,

who was called "Herrle von Baumgarten".( little master from that place).

Lindl obligated him by a solemn handshake to care for the remaining people as

he (Lindl) had done earlier. Nerlinger gave his promise and was the head of the

Philadelphic (loving) Municipality Gundremmingen and her surroundings.

In Giengen, Lindl was enthusiastically received by many Lutheran Pietists and

protestant ministers. The same day Lindl wrote to the Gundremmingers17 and

thanked them for the touching farewell party, which he would never forget, and

asked them to always remain with Lindl's teachings.

The Russian government had provided for a comfortable journey which led from

Giengen across Stuttgart, Berlin, Northern Germany to the Russian boundary and

on to Petersburg. On instruction of the prince Gallitzin Lindl received 500 Golddukaten

(money) as fare18. The travelers received a friendly reception at the Russian

boundary. Their numerous pieces of luggage were not checked because the duty

officials had been given special orders not to do so. On Monday, 15 November

1819, Lindl with his company arrived safe and sound at Petersburg with a

cordial reception. Prince Gallitzin, who was responsible for the affairs of

the denominations, found the land minister friendly and affectionate, but he

requested religious benediction from Lindl before beginning the conversation.

A large honor was given him, as he was given an audience with the emperor.

The Emperor received Lindl in large humility, knelt down in front of him and

spoke: "father, give your benediction to me!"19 The audience took a full

hour. Lindl's desire was to create in the south his own municipality. With

this plan he also met the agreement of the Emperor.

Lindl was working at full capacity on spiritual welfare, but Russian hospitality

took much of his free time. The normal busy way of life in the metropolitan city

did not allow him become as domestic here. In addition came the annoyance with

the Dominikanian monks, who tried with all their means to remove Lindl from

his influential post. He however found protection by the Roman (catholic)

archbishop, who rejected the attacks of the monks. He did have to answer for

himself before the bishop and submit copies of his lectures. After expelling

the Jesuits in the spring of 1820 there was a vacancy for a job as "visitor"

for the catholic settlements in south Russia. On suggestion of the prince

Gallitzin, Lindl was appointed on 13 April 1820 as Visitor20 of New Russia and

as Propst of the catholic church in Odessa. His successor in Petersburg was

Gossner, who has been active in Duesseldorf.

In the last evening before his departure from Petersburg Lindl invited his friends

to his home and he had prepared a great surprise for them. When the guests were

in a festive mood, Lindl stepped in from an adjoining room, arm in arm with his

solemnly decorated bride Elizabeth Voelk. Lindl asked Gossner to give them the

benediction. The friends were very surprised, and Gossner could not resist

giving the benediction to the bride and groom. The groom told his opinion, that he

breaks the celibacy with agreement of God and following his will. On the next day

Lindl left for Odessa with his wife and arrived there May 1820. His salary was

determined at 3000 rubles, in addition there was a generous amount for his housing

needs etc.

Lindl went with large expectations to Odessa, his new place of service, but instead

he experienced one disappointment after the other. Since Lindl did not make a

secret about his Evangelic conviction, the catholics distrusted him and the

new visitot and gave him problems. He also found great contradiction on the

part of the catholic dignitaries. Service at church and preaching were

forbidden to him. In this time twice the windows were broken, this was

certain evidence of his unpopularity. Since his life was no longer safe,

from Petersburg instruction regarding his safety was issued. These incidents

became known in Rome, a mixed commission was to examine and take care of the

situation. The result was, that he was relieved of his duties as visitator

and Propst of Odessa21.

Lindl's attempts to spread his modern teachings in the German catholic settlements

of south Russia were not accepted as well as in his homeland. From Odessa, Lindl on

9 August 1821 went as Pfarrverweser (curate in charge of the church parrish) into the

catholic municipality Rastatt. There his first lecture was alright, but the second

service displeased the people and after the third lecture, where he had denied the

virginity of Mary, thus three settlers informed against him. They would no

longer allow him any more official acts. A man even threatened to shoot

Lindl, if he enters the pulpit. Since Lindl in Rastatt could not contain

himself, he went into the colony München, which belonged to the parish

Rastatt. there several families had previously given up the catholic

confession. In privacy of a home Lindl held meetings, spoke of the coming

realm of God and within a short time won 30 families as followers. He also

cared for the lutheran settlements which were in the neighborhood. In some

places people did not care for him, the people armed themselves with scythes

and forks and kept Lindl from accessing the settlements.

Again,Lindl had to see, that his endeavors for conversion were not particulary

successful with the catholic settlers. Therefore he pursued the establishment of

an independent municipality with a larger eagerness to follow his own priniciples.

An estate was assured to him near Ovidiopol, where he wanted to establish a

colony with a church and a seminary for preachers. Here preachers should be

trained for south Russia and for the catholic colonies at the Volga. This great

project was not realized due to different reasons.

Under the rule of empress Kaharina 2nd, (1762-1769) and Tsar Alexander 1st,

(1801-1825) Russia conquered large areas in the southeast and the south,

which were weakly populated. Therefore a greater interest furthering immigration.

The basis for the Russian policy of colonizastion formed the manifesto by Katharina II

from 22 July 1763, which her successors would partially apply.

The empress was endeavored to get as rapidly as possible many people from

Germany into the country. With all possible means under the responsibility of

the Russian envoy in Germany there was propaganda for emigration.

The paid agents were rivals when chasing emigration willing people.

They tried to win them from everywhere, even from the pulpits by

telling the advantages of the new residential areas which were being

pointed out. In this manner about 25000 people came to the Volga

region. Tsar Alexander 1st issued in 1804 new guidelines for the settlement of

German colonists in south Russia, which in the peace treaty of Bucharest on

20 February 1812 they also gained Bessarabia22, (named after the Romanian

dynasty of prince Bessarab"). The number of immigrants was highly limited,

desired were only the efficient and wealthy farmers and craftsmen. The

willing emigrants had to announce themselves to the Russian representatives

and submit to them official papers, such as: Passports, certification

concerning a good reputation for their way of life, a certificate or a safe

endorsement that he was worth a fortune in cash or goods of at least 300

guldens. Those who could not prove the cash asset, or the childless maried

couples and the unmarried was simply excluded from the immigration.

The latter were only allowed to enter if they were included in another family.

The emigrants should travel in groups of 20-30 families at the expense of the

Russian government and under the guidance of a leader elected by themselves.

There was the possibility of sending delegates for exploring the selected

settlement before their departure. This was not necessary for the emigrants

from the former domain of Lindl, because he was already active for some

time in Odessa. His numerous written calls to his friends in the old

homeland to follow him to Russia were received enthusiastically. The

requests for emigration and the special privileges and rights23 caused a

movement among his followers. The moto was: "Lets go to Russia".

In the Lauingen shrovetide course the young masked shouted: "Hue. ohueo to

Russia without socks and without shoes! witch to pick up. Witch at the wire.

Look like the cart goes: They marched to Russia with flowers and bouquet.

And come from there with rags and lice!

The strong advertising campaign started. The line of the organization for

the forthcoming mass emigration was situated in the hands of the buyer Werner

in Giegen, which was very much supported by the bookbinder Jakob Mayr from


Wuerttemberg did not make it difficult for the willing emigrants, but Bavaria

with all her might had tried to keep her people from emigrating. This comes

from several orders of the presidency of the government of the upper Danube.

One writes on 1 March 1820 to the land judge Ott in Lauingen - corresponding:

"one took to the knowledge that in the regional court district Lauingen

activities of mystical leaders succeeded so far, that they already have won

several families for their emigration. For us, each citizen is legally

entitled to freedom of conscience and we do not want to pursue the religious

dreamers. We can not wait, while foreigners entice royal subjects by false

specifications from their native country. These foreigners include the

bookbinder Werner in Giegen/Wuerttemberg and others. Bookbinder Mayr put off

the willing emigrants with the fact that prince Gallitizen (with the Bavairan

government) will support the journey because of redemption of negotiations

and cash advances. Because of this Mayr and several other willing emigrants

are to be asked if Lindl influences directly or indirectly, and who is the

person who leads the correspondence with Lindl from Wuerttemberg or Bavaria.

The emigration addicted may indicate the reasons for the planned settlement

in Russia. They are to be carefully treated and to be told the unfortunate

fates of the former emigrants of Baden and Wuerttemberg to Russia. They

should also be told that it is an illusion to believe that the desert steppes

of Russia is the lucky country. No one is to be worried by this meeting, one

only wants to protect them from disasters. The Gienger business men (around

Werner) or other well known foreigners, notorious seducers are to be arrested

when entering the regional court district immediately, and to be remanded to

the presidency. On this occasion the royal land judge with all intelligence

has, without asking the concerned directly to question intensively, whether

he wants to have a religion separate from catholic and protestant, and does

he want to educate his own religious chiefs and teachers. Concerning this

they have to indicate their opinion whether it and the preservation of the

order benefically judge this separation to be advisable and is it positive

for the order of the country24.

The seduction of the state subjects for emigration could be considered

political crimes and punishable with two to eight years imprisonment after

the Bavarian penal code #306 was applied. According to titles IV, 14 in

Bavaira constitution the emigration was permitted to another Federal State,

if it wanted to make the emigrant a subjects of its own and if the person had

fulfilled the legal commitments against his past native country. To this


a) that military and land military have been fulfilled.

b) all debts, both personal and those rising from the municipality federation had

to be satisfied or an appropriate bail be placed.

c) to the local debts, also included are those to the war loads.

d) property sales out of court were legally invalid.

e) conveyance of title must only take place under legal conditions.

f) the under age emigrant with no individual parent is permitted.

g) the request for emigration is for each willing person individually, the

request through a third person is not admissable. Whoever emigrates

secretly, has to expect to be stopped as a vagabond and brought as a vagrant to

the reformatory in Kaisheim.

With the publication of these regulations the land judges were again assigned

the arrangement of special attention to the secret connections in the foreign

country and to emigration solicitors. The advertisement for emigration to

south Russia was a full success. Lindl's friends from the Giengen area

announced themselves very numerously to the Oberamt (upper administration)

Heidenheim. On the other hand, in the Bavarian Swabia from Günzburg,

Gundelfingen, Aislingen, Glott, Haunsheim, Peterswoerth, Offingen,

Baechingen/Benz, Burgau, Lauingen and Gundremmingen, several hundred

requests were asked at the responsible regional courts. Gundremmingen alone

had 180 people be noted for the emigration. The reasons enumerated in the

requests were mostly of a religious nature, in addition, the then bad

economic position of the mercenaries and craftsman might have played a

substantial role. The Gundremmingers indicated as a reason: since we poor

Christian souls are to pursuers enemies, a steady thorn in the eye, an impact

and annoyance and since this will remain, so long as we live among them

futhermore". The people heard by the regional court Lauingen justified their

project with "an internal impulse, a voice of God, the will of the Lord,

their struggle for the souls welfare"26.

The efforts of the religious and lay authorities to divert the willing emigrants

of their project were all in vain. Also the sharp monitoring of the "solicitors"

could not prevent the current instruction by Lind's followers. Also the sharp

monitoring of the "solicitors" could not prevent the current instruction of Lindl's

followers. At the end of July 1820 a command of the gendarmerie27 consisting

of a Brigadier and two men, was shifted to Gundremmingen, which was

considered a focal point of the emigration movement. The gendarmes had

to control all travelers strictly, and arrange arrests if necessary to display

with statement of illegal meetings with their author and user to report all

occurences, which were connected with the emigration, to the regional court

Dillingen. It is unknown, how long the gendarmerie remained in Gundremmingen.

The requests of the willing emigrants to the government were often drafted by

Werner, he also gave advice how to obtain further papers. Werner received

the message from Russia that the emigrants were to get a large support after

their arrival. For this purpose 30,000 rubles were deposited in Odessa.The

good message was joyous for the willing emigrants. Because the requests for

emigration bookbinder Mayr was heard on 29 July 1820 by the regional court

Lauingen28. He indicated: "On 20 of this month a carpenter of Gundremmingen

(Offenwanger) came early in the morning at 9:00 o'clock to see me at my

dwelling and showed me 4 individual letters with addresses to the regional

courts Dillingen, Lauingen, Guenzburg and urgau which was hand written by

tradesman Werner, I do not know by whom they were drafted, by Werner himself

or secretary v. Herneck in Munich. The carpenter did not report that he had to

transfer these 4 writings to statement of the tradesman Werner of Dillingen to the

lawyer Beer for legalization, he left the office, went to Dillingen and returned with

the message again for me in the afternoon at half 4 o'clock that the lawyer Beer

refused and said the legalization, all 4 writings would have to be quadrupled

on stamp paper to be written. The carpenter was fatigued, he wanted me to go

to Giengen to Mr. Werner and to indicate to him these doubts regarding the 4

writings. I began my way immediately after 4 o'clock in the stormy weather,

the likewise willing emigrant Haeussler of Haunsheim harnessed the car, and

we both arrived in the evening at 7 o'clock in Giengen at Mr. Werner's.

Tradesman Werner instructed me these rewritings are not necessary, and said

to present the one conception to the regional court Lauingen, after

collecting signatures of the emigrants there and to send the remaining 3

conceptions to the carpenter to Gundremmingen.

I arrived at home Friday 21st early at 2 o'clock and in the evening at 7

o'clock I transferred three further conceptions to the day laborer at

Bollenbauers in Gundremmingen. He was to transfer them to the carpenter.

What the carpenter was now to do is still unknown to me. I sign only the

conception in the return of Giengen from the emigrants to Haunsheim and from

the persons living here and sent them to Gundelfingen for further transport,

addressed to the regional court Lauingen, to Peterswoerth and Baechingen for

signatures. After this was collected, I transferred the conceptions to the

regional court Lauingen.

To the Bavarian government the activities of tradesman Werner were "a thorn

in the eye". However, since it was not able to proceed against the subjects

from Wuerttemberg themselves, they lodged a complaint with the

Wuerttembergian government and let its envoy present a relevant note29. Werner

was questioned several times in the future. It was stated that he corresponds with

Lindl and facilitates the project of willing emigrants and that he has decided to

emigrate at a given time to Russia. The government could not find anything

punishable in the behavior of Werner when providing the organization of emigration.

The government of Munich was informed of this.

The Wuerttemburgers received permission for the emigration to Russia

in the early summer of 1820. Entry permission into Russia was received on 23

June 1820. Soon thereafter the first group under the guidance of peat master

Nille the departure began. On 9 March 1821 the approval came for the

Gundremmingen group to emigrate. The travel began joyfully, In accordance

with the instruction of the royal regional court Dillingen from 28 July 1821,

the following emigrants had to appear in Lauingen and to begin on the same

day their departure on 31 July (route was by land).

From the royal regional court Dillingen.

A) family of Michael Bair of Gundremmingen consisting of:

1. Michael Bair, 30 years old.

2. Maria Bair, his wife, 22 years old.

3. Michael Bair, their child, 1/2 year old.

B) family of Leonhard Offenwanger of Gundremmingen

4. Leonhard Offenwanger, 56 years old.

5. Maria Offenwanger, his wife, 56 years old.

their children:

6. Katharina Offenwanger, 25 years old.

7. Alois Offenwanger, 24 years old.

8. Agnes Offenwanger, 22 years old.

9. Maria Offenwanger, 18 years old.

10. Joseph Offenwanger, 14 years old.

C) family of the Joseph Schwarzmann of Gundremmingen, consisting of:

11. Joseph, 40 years old.

12. Magdalena Schwarzmann, his wife, 49 years old.

their children

13. Anna Stroblin. step daughter, 23 years old.

14. Joseph Schwarzmann, 18 years old.

15. Kreszenz Schwarzmann, 16 years old.

16. Johann Schwarzmann, 15 years old.

17. Maria Schwarzmann, 14 years old.

18. George Schwarzmann, 12 years old.

19. Joseph Kaspar Schwarzmann, 4 months old.

D) Family George Boeck of Gundremmingen, consisting of:

20. Johann Boeck, 48 years old.

21. Barbara Boeck, marriage woman, 47 years old.

22. Johann Michael Boeck, 16 years old.

23. Augustin Boeck, 3 years old.

E) family George Moll of Gundremmingen, consisting of:

24. George Moll, 45 years old.

25 Anna Maria Moll, his wife, 42 years old.

26. Franziska Moll, 15 years old.

27. Maria Moll, 13 years old.

28 Leonhard Moll, 10 years old.

29. Kreszentia Moll, 7 years old.

30. Joh. Evangelist Moll, 5 years old.

31. Theres Moll, 2 years old.

From the regional court Guenzburg:

George Schmucker from Offingen with 1 woman and 3 children.

From the regional court Burgau:

Johann Strehle of Schnuttenbach with 1 woman and 4 children.

From the regional court Lauingen:

Anton Waldenmair of Lauingen with 1 woman and 3 children.

Johann Walter of Peterswoerth with 1 woman and 3 children.

Balthes Blatter of Gundelfingen with 1 woman and 5 children

the widow Anna Wiedermann from there with 4 children.

The group was led by Joseph Schwarzmann and had the following prescribed

route to take going to Bavaria: Donauwoerth 31 July arriving in the evening

at 5 o'clock; Neustadt on 1 August arriving in the evening at 6 o'clock; Vohburg on 2

August arriving in the evening; Abach on 3 August arriving in the evening;

via Regensburg to Plattling arriving in the evening; Osterhofen on 6 August

arriving in the evening; via Vilshofen to Passau on 7 August arriving in the

evening; on 8 August with Engelhartzell across the Bavarian boder. The rest

of the way was led through Austria - Hungary - Romania - Moldau - Odessa,

which was arrived after approximately 10 weeks.

The second group under the leadership of bookbinder Jakob Mayr of Lauingen

began its departure on 5 September 1821, they were prescribed the same route

as the first group. Among the group Mayr shortly after departure from

Lauingen raised some discrepancies. On 26 November 1824 the Rueckkehrer ( a

person who returned to Germany) Alois Proell of Lauingen indicated among

other things to the parish office Gundremmingen:30 Kolonnenfuehrer (leader)

Mayr of Lauingen, gave the order that the rich emigrants had to go ahead,

after them the poorer ones, which had to travel with the Russian-imperial

cash, the latter were embarrassed, because even in this way the first could

beg everything and they did, that's why the following poorer emigrants could

receive nothing or very little, thus the formerly marching emigrants had

already exhausted everything by their beggings. Already in Neustadt/Danube

there were disputes about "cross making" and "Ave Maria rose pray"31, some

scoffed at it, others however wanted to keep it.

When the first and second column arrived at Odessa, Lindl was in parish Rastatt.

The emigrants were disappointed very much with their arrival, because Lindl did

not come to the border to welcome them as was promised. The Lindlians were

partly accommodated provisionally in the city, which had at that time about

4.000 inhabitants, or in German settlements already existing, the catholics in

Kleinliebenthal and the others in Grossliebenthal.

The immigrants living in the city could care for their living costs by acceptable

earning facilities, but the others were dependent on the charity and the sense of

sacrifices by the German settlers. Nevertheless often there was large misery and some

bitter disappointments prevailed. The first misery letters arrived at home

during those times. Some considered their return, which succeeded, only to a

few with the help of their relatives.

The following returnees are known:

Johann Hamel. Gundelfingen.

Johan Walther, Peterswoerth.

Jakob Mayr, Lauingen.

George Stadleer, Lauingen.

Johann Huber, Lauingen.

Alois Proell, Lauingen.

Barbara Seltzer, widow, Lauingen.

Under the pressure of his followers in spring 1822 Lindl started the

preparations for the establishment of their own colony. In the valley of the

Sarata they were assigned a land strip of 4 hours long and 3/4 hours broad.

On 20 March 1822 Lindl went with approximately 70 families, approximately

half of them Wuerttembergers and half Bavarian, and traveled with 50

tent-wagons from Odessa into the assigned area, and arrived there 1 April.

Near a well the cars and the animals were set up in a circle. Adults and

children met in the center around the dear father Lindl. All fell on the

knees and thanked God. Lindl held a moving speech, he spoke of the longing

after the old homeland, with desperation and anxious concern over the future.

His words raised them (their hearts), his reminders to agreement and

confidence in God found open hearts. After this all had to testify by handshake

that they will recognize him to be leader in religious and secular affairs.

On the next day a suitable workstation for the system of the settlement was

selected, which became named after the small river Sarata. The construction

work was executed under Lindl's leadership. Die Steine wurden in der Nähe aus der

Erde gebrochen, das Holz holte man aus Akkerman, und zum Decken der Häuser nahm man

das reichlich vorhandene Schilf. Bis zum Herbst waren die Häuser unter Dach, auch das

Haus des Pfarrers und ein geräumiger Betsaal waren bis zum Einbruch des Winters fertiggestellt.

Bis dahin wurden die täglichen Andachten oder Gottesdienste vor dem Zelt Lindls abgehalten.

On the 25 July 1822 the last group under the guidance of Michael Wagner from

Lauingen started their journey to Russia. On Bavarian soil the way led

across Augsburg, Pasing, Parsdorf, Haar, Muehldorf, Altoetting, and

Simmbach/Inn across the border of Austria. The destination was Sarata.

Among this group was the family of the Joseph Oberlander from Gundremmingen,

consisting of:

1. Joseph Oberlander, 49 years old.

2. Margarethe Oberlander, his wife, 46 years old.

their children

3. Joseph Oberlander, 17 years old.

4. Margaretha Oberlander, 16 years old.

5. Mathias Oberlander, 12 years old.

6. George Oberlander, 9 years old.

7. Michael Oberlander, 7 years old.

8. Maria Oberlander, 6 years old.

B) family Anton Moll of Gundremmingen, consisting of:

9. Anton Moll, 33 years old.

10. Magdalena Moll, his wife, 29 years old.

Their children:

11. George Moll, 6 years old.

12. Max Joseph Moll, 3 years old.

13. Leo Moll, 2 years old.

C) Family Xaver Gebhardt of Rieder, consisting of:

14. Xaver Gebhardt, 60 years old.

15. Viktoria Gebhardt, his wife, 53 years old.

Their children:

16. Maria Gebhardt, 22 years old.

17. Theresia Gebhardt, 14 Years old.

18. Sebastian Gebhardt, 9 years old.

With this group these people also went:

19. Johannes Moll, brother of Anton Moll, 47 years old, divorced.

20. Eleonora Klein, single, 21 years old.

D) Without royal approval on the 31 July 1821 these people emigrated to


21. Joseph Wölfle, 28 years old.

22. Anton Böck, 19 years old.

23. Maria Anna Mair, 21 years old.

24. Maria Anna Demeter, 16 years old.

Thus altogether 56 persons from the parish Gundremmingen emigrated in the

years 1821-1822.

Soon after their arrival, Lindl gave a church order to his municipally.

Daily they were to have morning and evening devotion. Sunday was kept holy.

In the new municipally an active religious life was developed, which was

still deepened by prayer meetings in the homes. Religious writings were

distributed to all the families. During the service Lindl spoke with

preference about apocalyptic texts and preached with passion about penalty,

rebirth and revival. His words went to their hearts, and he often preached

in the open air with a loud voice before many listeners from near and far.

Many folks who heard Lindl felt aroused and converted. The arousing movement

took such form that the authority with "requirements and prohibitions" had to

intervene: There was little success.

Although there was much countryside available success was small. In the

spring of 1822 very little could be cultivated due to the severe winter.

Thus the harvest was meager. They had hoped for a mild winter and therefore

had only built a few cattle huts. Many quilts were needed. The snow

penetrated, due to the thin roofing, into the dwellings, and these could not

be heated adequately. Since nutrition was poor (corn being the most frequent

food) the drinking water was not good, and the poor clothing there were many

diseases and deaths. The time of settlement was a time of bitter distress,

and our emigrants were not much better off than the Russian Musenik living in

the area. During the time of this distress the last emigrants came from the

homeland with Werner and his friend Veygel from Giengen/Brenz. After all the

willing emigrants from the homeland had left, the supervisor Werner and his

partner Veygel started 2 May 1823 on their journey to Sarata34. There they

were received with large joy. Werner brought a considerable fortune along

and tried immediately to reduce the largest distress. He did not wait until

the poor people came to him, but he looked them up and gave amounts between

50 and 150 rubles. The benefactor tried to reduce the distress in all areas.

Werner was already 63 years old when he came to Sarata. Unfortunately he

could not help for long because of his death on 23 September 1823. Werner

knew what was necessary for the favorable development of the German

settlements. On his death bed he bequeathed, in a will, his whole fortune35 to

the municipality of Sarata in the presence of Veygel and Lindl.

The municipality received a new church from the legacy, and according to the

desire of the testator an institute was created in which orphan boys were

trained as school teachers and recorders for the German settlements and was

to be maintained freely at the expense of the institute. The institute was

later named "Werner School". It was the only German teacher educational

establishment of Bessarabia. Owing to this school establishment the

municipality Sarata could maintain its prominent position under the

municipalities in Bessarabia. This school was a cornerstone of the German

Culture in South Russia.

The year 1823 brought a further heavy loss for the municipality of Sarata.

When Lindl confirmed to the prince Gallitzin, that he wanted to withdraw from

the catholic church and to form an apostolic brother municipality for his

catholic and evangelical colonists, the Tsar ordered him expelled.

That also occured due to the changed political conditions in Petersburg. In

December Lindl had to leave Russia within three days. His departure was

generously financed. The parting from his municipality was very painful. In

his homeland Lindl changed officially to the Evangelist faith and became

first a teacher in an institute for missions and then helping pastors in

different municipalities in Wuppertal. After he had opposed the Evangelist

church in faith questions, he joined the sect of Nazarene's became their

preacher in Barmen. Here is where his wife Elizabeth died on 2 April 1841,

after he had lost his three children Johannes, Viktoria, and Samuel36. Now he

was very lonely. As a dreamer he propagated again the celibacy and praised

it. In Barmen he was visited by his friend Gossner, who had left Petersburg

also and had converted to the Evangelist faith. Gossner said about Lindl:"he

was well minded and always had the Lord in his eyes, only he trusted too much

in his own opinions". With his followers in his homeland and in Petersburg as

well as with his municipality Sarata he remained in active correspondence up

to his death on 31 October 1845.

After Lindls departure on 11 October 1804 religious care of the municipality

was temporarily transferred to Joseph Strehle, born in Schnuttenbach,

candidate of theology. His preaching was with the "near coming of the Lord"

and impressed the listeners and promoted those dreaming - chiliastic (church)

direction, the expectation of a thousand-year old realm toward Christ's

return. Many were convinced to have to prepare for the end and the second

coming of Christ that they neglected their families and economics. The

religious peace occured only in 182637, when all colonists professed themselves

to the Evangelical-Lutheran faith. Attempts to provide that catholics could

remain in their church was unsuccessful. After Lindl had left Sarata, the

administration of the political community was transferred to Gottlieb Veygel,

who had emigrated with Werner. He led the municipality with a safe hand and

created in the course of the years the bases for a healthy community.

The children diligently had to go to school and to church, and the young people

were not permitted to loaf about (to go ouside/) during darkness. Offenses were

strictly enforced and punished. At the festivities, like baptism, wedding etc.,

it was forbidden to enjoy celebrations for several days, like it was usually done

in other settlements. In the municipality law and order prevailed.

Ein Zeitgenosse sagte von den Saratanern, daß von diesen Leuten ein wohltuender Friede und
eine entgegenkommende Liebe entgegenwehe, die alle Rohheit verscheuche.

Veygel war für alle da, seine gute wirtschaftliche Lage ermöglichte es ihm, allen Bedrängten zu helfen.
Seine besondere Fürsorge galt den Witwen und Waisen. Volle 19 Jahre war er unentgeltlich als Schulze
(Bürgermeister) tätig, und seine Gemeinde zeichnete sich von allem anderen Gemeinden durch Fleiß
und Wohlstand aus. Zu Beginn seiner Amtszeit als Schulze wurde die von Lindl eingeführte Gütergemeinschaft,
bei der alle Arbeiten gemeinsam geleistet und auch die Erträge unter allen gleichmäßig verteilt wurden,
wieder aufgehoben.

At the beginning of his office as a Mayor, the "goods community" as

organized before by Lindl - at which all work was carried out together and

also the yields were evenly distributed under all - was abolished". Each

settler received 60 Dessjatine country (1 Dßj.= 1.0925 hectars).

The soil contained Saltpeter (=nitre), which probably promoted a good grass

stand with plentiful rain in many places, but this had many disadvantages for

agriculture. This also applies to the quality of the water. Therefore there

are no forests in that area and no individual trees. Only in yards and fruit

orchards created by the settlers, and were called forests by the farmers.

Also the fruit trees and the common grape vines did not live long. The

settlers were about half Bavarian Swabians and about half Wuerttembergers.

The Bavarians were busy with agriculture and cattle breeding in the homeland,

while the Wuerttembergers were familiar with viticulture. When they

determined a prospering of mais-corn here, they saw therein a good sign for

the cultivation of vines. After being in Sarata just two years they created

vineyards. Their first attempts with viticulture were quite successful.

Their work was well rewarded. Just after four years with approximately 100

vineyards and fruit orchards satisfying yields were produced.

The Bavarian settlers noticed quite soon that not only beer tastes good, but

also the wine made by their fellow settlers was not bad. Bavarians were

willing apprentices of the Wuerttemburgers regarding viticulture. In Sarata

one wanted good, well tasting wine. So beside horses and cattle breeding,

viticulture became quite important for their source of income. Later in

Sarata there was the cultivation of grape vines in all the German settlements

in south Russia. In addition, our emigrants in Bessarabia gained prosperity

and reputation by their diligence and perseverance, but they were concerned

by the political and economic setbacks. The countries controlling Bessarabia

changed several times, this was unfavorable and difficult for the German

settlers. However they were faithful subjects, who would fulfill their

obligation to the state in war and peace times. The connection to the old

homeland was maintained, the native language and old customs. Therefore

the German soldiers were sometimes quite surprised in the First and Second

World War when they found pure German settlements in south Russia.

Occasionally descendants of the emigrants visited the homeland of their

ancestors. In the year 1906 Mr. Hobacher (his ancestors were from Bühl) from

Sarata visited the local parish office, visited "die Lindlstube" (Lindl's

room) and explained to the minister that all emigrant names of Gundremmingen

in Sarata still existed. And in the year 1935, Johannes Oberlander from

Sarata stayed with his relatives in Gundremmingen. A married couple,

Johannes and Luise Oberlander, maintained until 1943 moving exchanges of

letters with their cousins in Gundremmingen. From the partially still

available letters it follows that the letter writers with heart and soul were

farmers and were deeply attracted to their homeland Bessarabia. In all the

letters there was a strong feeling of confidence in God.

Bessarabia was occupied on 28 June 1940 by the Russians. Those resident

Germans were evacuated in an agreement between the German and Russian

government: they should settle in the Warthegau." (that's in Poland).

The migration back led the German's including the Sarata people through the

same countries Hungary, and Romania which their ancestors had crossed on

their march to the East years before". The returnees from Sarata were led

mainly to Jarotschin-Warthegau. Property was not transferred to them during

the war. The married couple Oberlander with family was enabled to do the

administration of a large agricultural company in Kottlau. By political orders

the Sarata girls were told to sing old Christmas Carols at Christmas in which the

name "Jesus" was to be omitted. The girls rejected this unjustified demand - letter

of 16 December 1943. In the winter 1944/45 most Germans, among them

Bessarabians, fled from the Warthegau toward the West. Descendants of the

Oberlander's live today in Kempten, Echterdingen and Crailsheim. Other names

of the former emigrants are not known up to now.

Also, as Lindl left Gundremmingen, religious and lay authorities observed the

sect with special attention. They tried to win the children of the Lindlianer for

the Catholic religious education. The municipalities around Gundremmingen

were reminded several times, that secret meetings for the practice of service at

home were forbidden by the religion edict to the constitutional charter of the

Kingdom of Bavaria of 1806 and to be aware in case of offenses on sensitive

fines or arrest in jail. The church authority from Augsburg on the fourth Sunday

after Whitsuntide 1853 instructed the Catholic Church in Gundremmingen to

exclude 20 people (names are unknown) from the Catholic Church because they

would not obey written orders. Gradually the excommunicated municipality

members turned back again to the Catholic Church. Thus, the unity of the faith

in the municipality was repaired. The memory of Lindl and his faithful ones was

not wiped out completely until today.

Footnotes and remarks:

1) Joseph Sedelmayer, Pfarrer Ignaz Lindl. ein Baustein zur Geschichte des Pseudomystizismus in der
      katholischen Kirche in Bayern im 19. Jahrhundert. Manuskript im Archiv der Diözese Augsburg.

2) Compare note 1

3) Hildebrand Dussler. Der Nuntiaturbericht über die Sekte des Ignaz Lindl vom 18. Juli 1819.
     In: Jahrbuch des Vereins für Augsburger Bistumsgeschichte 2 (1968). 129 ff.

4) Hildebrand Dussler. Johann Michael Feneberg und die Allgäuer Erweckungsbewegung. Nürnberg 1959, 136 ff.-
      Derselbe in: Lebensbilder aus dem Bayerischen Schwaben 8 (1961), 328 ff.

5) Compare note 2

6) Pfarrarchiv Gundremmingen

7) Compare note 2. page 130.

8) Compare note 2. page 131.

9) Staatsarchiv Neuburg Bezirksamt Dillingen Akt-Nr. 1267

10) Compare notes 1 & 2.

11) Pfarrarchiv Gundremmingen

12) Joseph Sedelmayer. Pfarrer Ignaz Lindl, Compare note 1

13) Heinrich Roemmich. Ignaz Lindl. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Deutschen Bessarabiens.
      In: Die evangelische Diaspora. Nr. 14. 19 Beihefte

14) Georg Leibrand. Die Auswanderung aus Schwaben nach Rußland. 1816 – 1823. Stuttgart 1928

15) Josef Sedelmayer. Manuskript-Band s.o. Lindl hatte für den Abschied eine Predigt drucken lassen,
       die jedoch von der Polizei beschlagnahmt wurde.

16) Josef Sedelmayer. Manuskript-Band s.o.

17) Pfarrarchiv Gundremmingen

18) Georg Leibrandt. Die Auswanderung aus Schwaben nach Rußland 1816-1823.

19) Hildebrand Dussler. Johann Michael Feneberg und die Allgäuer Erweckungsbewegung Nürnberg 1959,
       vergleiche Anmerkung

20) Georg Leibbrandt. Die Auswanderung aus Schwaben nach Rußland 1816-1823, Stuttgart 1928;
        Als Lindl noch Pfarrer in Gundremmingen war, hatte er beim Bayerischen Ministerpräsidenten
         v. Montgelas die Aufhebung des Zölibats beantragt.

21) Georg Leibbrandt, compare note 20.

22) fertile landscape between Dnjester, Pruth, Danube, Black Sea. 44422

square km. 3.1 million inhabitants (Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian):

Capital Kischinew. Cultivation of wheat, corn, sunflowers, tobacco, fruit,

vineyards. Bessarabia 1367 was in Moldavia, 1503 it became Turkish, 1812

Russian. The south was 1856/78 Romanian, 1918 Bessarabia became completely

Romanian, 1940 Russian, 1941 Romanian, 1944 Russian. The German immigrants

from 1814-1842 were evacuated in 1940, approximately 80,000.

23) 1. free worship;

2.release from deliveries and all loads for 10 years;

3.after the free years the colonists had to pay for the next ten years

Dessj. 15 -20 Kop. control and later as much, as the other farmers settled in the area

concerned on Crown lands;

4. exception from the military and civil service;

5. the repayment of the funds put forward by the crown is to be

distrubuted on those the free years the following ten years;

6. each family receives 60 Dessj. land, free of charge;

7. from the day of the arrival at the Russian boundary up to reaching

the destination they receive 10 Kop. for each adult and 6 Kop. for

each child per day as garrison ration;

8. from the day of arrival at the place of address up to the new

harvest daily per heading 5-10 Kop. are eye paid depending upon food prices.

These funds are posted as debt and must be returned;

9. to the building of the houses and purchase of cattle etc. the

settlers receive an interest free loan from 300 rubles on the family;

10. into Russia they can bring their property duty free to the value of

300 rubles; additional goods to the sales in the value of 300 rubles;

11. whoever wants to leave Russia, has to except his debt, he has to

pay Russia three times a yearly tax. It is to create factories to operate

all kinds of trade and to join gilden everywhere in the empire in order to

sell their products. The willing emigrants were given the false promises:

Each family father gets a property with fields of 100 Jauchert (old field

measurement, about a German Tagwerk) and a two story bricked house at the

price of 600 guldens, and whoever is content with a one story house, should

pay 400 guldens, which are to be paid only in 10 years and in rates.

Also each family was promised to get as additional present: 2 oxen, 1 cow,

1 plow and a harrow and 1 spinning wheel; addditionally it was noted

that the settlement was a true paradise with twice the harvests.

24/25) Bay Staatsarchiv Neuburg. Bezirksamt Dillingen Nr. 1269 1/1V

26) Georg Leibbrandt, vergleiche Anmerkung 20.

27/28) Bavarian public records Neustadt, office for the district Dillingen NR. 1267, 1267/1

27/28) Bayerisches Staatsarchiv Neuburg. Bezirksamt Dillingen Nr. 1267, 1267 1.

29) In der bayerischen Note vom 11.7.1820 hieß es "Der schon vor mehreren Jahren in Schwaben gewordene
Trieb zum Auswandern nach Rußland wird seit einiger Zeit neuerdings durch fanatische Lehren und Weissagungen
genährt, deren tätigste Verbreiter und Beförderer in den den bayerischen Oberdonaukreis begrenzenden
württembergischen Distrikten wohnen, ihre Wirksamkeit aber auf eine höchst gefährliche und verderbliche Art
auch diesseits der Grenze äußern, wo besonders in den Landkreisen Dillingen, Lauingen, Burgau, Günzburg der
Impuls zu solchen Auswanderungen durch den vormaligen Pfarrer Lindl von Gundremmingen gegeben worden,
welcher im Herbst vorigen Jahres selbst nach Rußland gezogen, seitdem aber mit seinen älteren Freunden und
Anhängern in steter Verbindung zu dem Zwecke geblieben ist.
Die in dieser Beziehung dem königlichen bayerischen Ministerium insbesondere namhaft gemachten königlich
württembergischen Untertanen sind die Handelsleute Christian Friedrich Werner und Veyel von Giengen,
Brugget (Plouquet?) von Heidenheim, dann der Zollstationist Stille (Nille?) in Brenz, deren letzter vorzüglich als
Verbreiter angeblicher Briefe des Lindl aus Petersburg tätig ist, während die übrigen sich das Ansehen geben,
durch russische Handelshäuser zu Geldvorschüssen an die Auswanderer und zur Erleichterung ihres Fortkommens,
mittels Realisierung und Übermachung ihres Vermögens angewiesen, und zu diesem Zweck mit angesehenen
Autoritäten sogar in direktem Verkehr zu sein. Diese Umtriebe, der kaiserlich russischen Regierung völlig unbekannt,
die dieselben höchst mißbilligt, welchen der in jenen Gegenden früherhin durch den Pfarrer Lindl und seine
Anhänger verbreiteten Mystizismus zum Vehikel dient, äußern bereits in Bezug auf das öffentliche wie auf das
Familienleben die traurigsten und bedenklichsten Wirkungen, indem junge Leute beiderlei Geschlechts gegen
den Willen ihrer Eltern zur Auswanderung gelockt, Hausväter zum Verlassen ihrer Frauen und Kinder ermuntert
und selbst Soldaten zum Verlassen ihres Vaterlandes unter der Vorspiegelung verführt werden, daß der zu letzterer
geleistete Eid sie nicht abhalten dürfe, dem inneren Rufe zu folgen." Vgl. hierzu: Georg Leibrand, a.a.O. (Anmerkung 20)

30) Joseph Sedelmayer. Mskr.-Band

31) Joseph Sedelmayer. Mskr.-Band

32) Heinrich Roemmich. Ignaz Lindl. In: magazine "The Evangelic world" No 14.

33) District court Dillingen 22 July 1822 and Pfarrarchiv Gundremmingen.

34/35) Georg Leibrandt, vergleiche Anmerkung 20

36/37) Heinrich Roemmich. Beihefte "Die evangelische Diaspora" Nr. 14 Ignaz Lindl

=> to German Version

Text last updated July 02

zur Biographie von Ignaz Lindl: Kirchenlexikon (Deutsch) & Religious Encyclopedia (English)

Wikipedia: History of the founding of Sarata (in German)

Sarata Village History by Elli Wise (in English)

History of Baindlkirch (in German)  

Bildkalender Bessarabien

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created 2002 by Edna and Ralf (Thanks to Edna, who did the great job to transcribe the German text!)